Filing for a renewal of the Visa

F-1 Visa:  If any student has violated the norms, he has to leave the country, and then obtain a new visa. The reinstatement can start by filing Form I-593 with a completed SEVIS Form I-20, which includes a recommendation by the DSO, along with the proof that have not been out of status for more than five months and that it was all down to exceptional situations that case you to be barred in the first place.

J-1 Visa- The student can ask the concerned official for extension without bothering the Department of State. Only if the extension is beyond eighteen months does the DOS step in.  If the category of the program has to be changed from trainee to research scholar, then the approval of the DOS is required. Also if the program is to be changed, it has to mention in the new Form DS-2019.